mysql2 gem prepared statements

Interact with Mysql Server using mysql2 gem [Part 3] – Prepared Statements

This is the third part of the series where we create a service to interact with MySQL server in rails using mysql2 gem. You can read other parts by following the links below:

Requirements

  • [x] Service to connect with external MySQL server
  • [x] Perform basic query: select, insert and update
  • [ ] Prepared statement
  • [ ] Perform transaction
  • [ ] Perform join query

In the previous two articles, we created a service and added methods to help us perform select, insert and update operations. Today we will be looking at performing prepared statements to MySQL server using mysql2 gem.

In this blog

We will be learning the following in this blog:

  • Perform prepared statement

Prepared Statement

From Wikipedia:

In database management systems (DBMS), a prepared statement or parameterized statement is a feature used to execute the same or similar database statements repeatedly with high efficiency. Typically used with SQL statements such as queries or updates, the prepared statement takes the form of a template into which certain constant values are substituted during each execution.

What it means for our service is we will replace the actual value in the insert and update query with a question mark(?) and send the actual values only the second time. Let’s refactor the code.

Prepared Insert Query

Here is what we will do for supporting prepared statements in our insert operation:

  1. Remove the method format_insert_query because it is dumping all attributes and values in a single query while we need to use a placeholder (?) and perform an operation in two phases; one, prepare the query, and two, send values to create in database.
  2. Create prepare_query method which will format the query as needed and provide us the hash with query and values.
  3. Update insert method to perform prepared statements.

Code

def insert(attributes)
  query = prepare_query(attributes)

  perform_mysql_operation do
    mysql_connect.prepare(query[:prepared_query])
    mysql_connect.execute(*query[:values])

    puts 'Record inserted!'
  end
end

private

def prepare_query(attributes)
  raise 'Attributes cannot be empty' if attributes.empty?

  keys = attributes.keys
  columns = keys.join(', ')
  substituted_columns = keys.map { '?' }.join(', ')

  prepared_query = "INSERT INTO #{table} (#{columns}) VALUES (#{substituted_columns})"

  values = attributes.values

  {
    prepared_query: prepared_query,
    values: values
  }
end

Explanation

prepare_query is taking attributes hash parameter from insert method and returning hash with prepared query and values to insert to database. The following is happening inside the method:

  • Get column names by formatting key part of attributes
  • Format column names and add a comma (,)
  • Format column names and add placeholder (?) then add a comma (,)
  • Prepare insert query
  • Collect only values of attributes hash
  • Return a new hash with prepared query and values

Following is happening inside insert method:

  • Call prepare_query which returns a hash with prepared query and values needed for the insert operation
  • Prepare query with prepare method provided by mysql2 gem
  • Insert record to the database with execute method

Practically:

  • {first_name: 'John', last_name: 'Doe'} will be received as attributes parameter, which will be sent to prepare_query to get hash having formatted query and values
  • Inside prepare_query, columns will have "first_name, last_name", substituted_columns will have "?, ?" i.e. the number of values that will be inserted. If table was users, prepared_query will be "INSERT INTO users (first_name, last_name) VALUES (?, ?)" and values will have ['John', 'Doe']
  • After receiving hash from prepare_query, insert method will now prepare the query with prepare method and insert to the database with execute method.

Prepared Update Query

Insert and update query has only one difference when the query is prepared so we want to use the same prepare_query method used in insert operation/. To do that we will update the code and do the following:

  1. Remove the method format_update_query.
  2. Update prepare_query method to support both insert and update operations.
  3. In prepare_query, we will add type params that can differentiate between insert and update operation.
  4. We will extract the prepared statements for insert operation to the new method prepare_insert_query and add prepare_update_query for formatting update query.
  5. Depending on type param, we will call the related method that is formatting the prepared queries.
  6. Update update method to perform prepared statements.

Code

def update(id, attributes)
  query = prepare_query(attributes, 'update')
  values = query[:values]
  values.push(id)

  perform_mysql_operation do
    mysql_connect.prepare(query[:prepared_query])
    mysql_connect.execute(*values)

    puts 'Record Updated!'
  end
end

private

def prepare_insert_query(keys)
  columns = keys.join(', ')
  substituted_columns = keys.map { '?' }.join(', ')

  "INSERT INTO #{table} (#{columns}) VALUES (#{substituted_columns})"
end

def prepare_update_query(keys)
  columns = keys.map { |key| "#{key} = ?" }.join(', ')

  "UPDATE #{table} SET #{columns} WHERE #{primary_column} = ?"
end

def prepare_query(attributes, type)
  raise 'Attributes cannot be empty' if attributes.empty?

  keys = attributes.keys

  prepared_query = type == 'insert' ? prepare_insert_query(keys) : prepare_update_query(keys)

  values = attributes.values

  {
    prepared_query: prepared_query,
    values: values
  }
end

Explanation

Only change in update to insert is; it’s also taking id as parameters. id lets us know which existing record we want to update in the database. It is getting prepared query and values for updating in the database, the concept is same as insert with a change in query and values where id value is added to the values that are returned from prepare_query hash.

Practically:

  • If we are providing id=1 and attributes same as insert query, prepare_query will return query "UPDATE users SET first_name = ?,last_name = ? WHERE id = ?" and values ['John', 'Doe']
  • Since we also have a placeholder for id, we will need to add the id to the values, so values will now contain ['John', 'Doe', 1]
  • After this, as with insert operation, first queries are prepared and then values are updated in the database.

Final Code

If you have been following the tutorial from part 1, you will have the following in your service file:

require 'mysql2'

module MySqlServer
  module Database
    class Connect
      attr_reader :mysql_connect, :table, :primary_column

      def initialize(table, primary_column)
        @table = table
        @primary_column = primary_column
      end

      def fetch_all
        perform_mysql_operation do
          result = mysql_connect.query("SELECT * from #{table}")

          puts result.entries
        end
      end

      def fetch_one(id)
        perform_mysql_operation do
          result = mysql_connect.query("SELECT * from #{table} WHERE #{primary_column}=#{id}")

          puts result.entries
        end
      end

      def insert(attributes)
        query = prepare_query(attributes, 'insert')

        perform_mysql_operation do
          mysql_connect.prepare(query[:prepared_query])
          mysql_connect.execute(*query[:values])

          puts 'Record inserted!'
        end
      end

      def update(id, attributes)
        query = prepare_query(attributes, 'update')
        values = query[:values]
        values.push(id)

        perform_mysql_operation do
          mysql_connect.prepare(query[:prepared_query])
          mysql_connect.execute(*values)

          puts 'Record Updated!'
        end
      end

      private

      def connect_to_db
        host = ENV['MYSQL_SERVER_IP']
        database = ENV['MYSQL_DB_NAME']
        username = ENV['MYSQL_USERNAME']
        password = ENV['MYSQL_PASSWORD']

        Mysql2::Client.new(username: username, password: password, database: database, host: host)
      end

      def perform_mysql_operation
        raise ArgumentError, 'No block was given' unless block_given?

        begin
          @mysql_connect = connect_to_db

          yield
        rescue StandardError => e
          raise e
        ensure
          mysql_connect&.close
        end
      end

      def prepare_insert_query(keys)
        columns = keys.join(', ')
        substituted_columns = keys.map { '?' }.join(', ')

        "INSERT INTO #{table} (#{columns}) VALUES (#{substituted_columns})"
      end

      def prepare_update_query(keys)
        columns = keys.map { |key| "#{key} = ?" }.join(', ')

        "UPDATE #{table} SET #{columns} WHERE #{primary_column} = ?"
      end

      def prepare_query(attributes, type)
        raise 'Attributes cannot be empty' if attributes.empty?

        keys = attributes.keys

        prepared_query = type == 'insert' ? prepare_insert_query(keys) : prepare_update_query(keys)

        values = attributes.values

        {
          prepared_query: prepared_query,
          values: values
        }
      end
    end
  end
end

After this our service should be able to perform all basic and prepared operations in and to the external MySQL server. Next week we will learn to perform transaction operations i.e. we will be performing multiple queries and rollback all operations if there is an error in even one of the operations. Thank you and stay tuned!

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